Mad Of Electronics

Here u can find some useful tips and links related to troubleshooting electronic appliances

Setupdd.sys Could Not Be Loaded Error Code 4

Posted by rajascientist Tuesday, December 29, 2009 0 comments

               Recently  my  friend had a problem with his system. The complaint was with the power supply , when turned there is no response in CPU  .  I removed the  SMPS  and after inspecting for a while , we found that the problem  was with SMPS  and  we decided to  buy new one instead  of repairing  it.

               After connecting the  new SMPS  I switched on the computer but we found abnormal signs in monitor display , it  flicked ,also  many  dots  and vertical line were seen in the display. Ignoring that we proceeded  but unable to boot  in all modes  including safe mode.

               We once again checked for all connections  and  again restarted the system but there was  no use.
So  we  decided to  install new XP  but that too ended in vain.  While booting from cd we had the following  error  Setupdd.sys  Could  Not  Be  Loaded  Error  Code 4    , we found out that the problem was with RAM  and  I removed it and cleaned it after inserting ,same problem occured, so  we replaced it with new RAM now system works fine.


Posted by rajascientist Monday, December 28, 2009 0 comments


 India Playing  Matches  Live on DD National

Match Venue Time(IST)
Mon Jan 4 1st Match – Bangladesh v Sri Lanka
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST
Tue Jan 5 2nd ODI – India Vs Sri Lanka (D/N)
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST
Thu Jan 7 3rd Match – Bangladesh v India
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST
Fri Jan 8 4th Match – Bangladesh v Sri Lanka
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST
Sun Jan 10 5th Match – India v Sri Lanka
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST
Mon Jan 11 6th Match – Bangladesh v India
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST
Wed Jan 13 Final – TBC v TBC
Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur 14:00 IST

                                                                      Test Match Schedule


Sun Jan 17 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Chittagong (ZACS), 1st Test day 1

Mon Jan 18 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Chittagong (ZACS), 1st Test day 2

Tue Jan 19 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Chittagong (ZACS), 1st Test day 3

Wed Jan 20 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Chittagong (ZACS), 1st Test day 4

Thu Jan 21 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Chittagong (ZACS), 1st Test day 5

Sun Jan 24 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Dhaka (SBNS), 2nd Test day 1

Mon Jan 25 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Dhaka (SBNS), 2nd Test day 2

Tue Jan 26 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Dhaka (SBNS), 2nd Test day 3

Wed Jan 27 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Dhaka (SBNS), 2nd Test day 4

Thu Jan 28 2010

03:30 GMT 10:30 Local

Bangladesh v India

Dhaka (SBNS), 2nd Test day 5

India vs Sri lanka

Live on DD National.

Indian Time
December 9

India vs Sri lanka
1st Twenty/20
December 12

India vs Sri lanka
2nd Twenty/20
December 14
09:30 AM
India vs Sri lanka
1st ODI
December 18
2:30 PM
India vs Sri lanka
2nd ODI
December 21
2:30 PM
India vs Sri lanka
3rd ODI
December 24
2:30 PM
India vs Sri lanka
4th ODI
December 27
9:30 AM
India vs Sri lanka
5th ODI

Collection Of Leave Letters

Posted by rajascientist 0 comments


This is a collection of leave letters and applications written by people in various places of India ...

1. Infosys, Bangalore : An employee applied for leave as follows:
Since I have to go to my village to sell my land along with my wife, please sanction me one-week leave.

2. This is from Oracle Bangalore:
From an employee who was performing the "mundan" ceremony of his 10 year old son: "as I want to shave my son's head, please leave me for two days...."

3. Another gem from CDAC. Leave-letter from an employee who was performing his daughter's wedding:
"as I am marrying my daughter, please grant a week's leave.."

4. From H.A..L. Administration dept:
"As my mother-in-law has expired and I am only one responsible for it, please grant me 10 days leave."

5. Another employee applied for half day leave as follows:
"Since I've to go to the cremation ground at 10 o-clock and I may not return, please grant me half day casual leave"

6. An incident of a leave letter
"I am suffering from fever, please declare one day holiday."

7. A leave letter to the headmaster:
"As I am studying in this school I am suffering from headache. I request you to leave me today"

8. Another leave letter written to the headmaster:
"As my headache is paining, please grant me leave for the day."

9. Covering note: "I am enclosed herewith..."

10. Another one:
"Dear Sir: with reference to the above, please refer to my below..."

11. Actual letter written for application of leave:
"My wife is suffering from sickness and as I am her only husband at home I may be granted leave".

12. Letter writing: -
"I am in well here and hope you are also in the same well."

13. A candidate's job application:
"This has reference to your advertisement calling for a ' Typist and an Accountant - Male or Female'...As I am both(!! )for the past several years and I can handle both with good experience, I am applying for the

Things Not Known To Us --- 1

Posted by rajascientist 0 comments

There are some things we all didn't kn O I right??

1. Coca-Cola was originally green.
2. The most common name in the world is Mohammed.
3.The name of all the continents end with the same letter that they start with.
4. The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue.
5. There are two credit cards for every person in the United States.
6. TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only on one row of the keyboard.
7. Women blink nearly twice as much as men!
8. You can't kill yourself by holding your breath.
9. It is impossible to lick your elbow.
10. People say "Bless you" when you sneeze because when you sneeze, your heart stops for a millisecond.
11. It is physically impossible for pigs to look up into the sky.
12. The "sixth sick sheik's sixth sheep's sick" is said to be the toughest tongue twister in the English language.
13. If you sneeze too hard, you can fracture a rib. If you try to suppress a sneeze, you can rupture a blood vessel in your head or neck and die.
14. Each king in a deck of playing cards represents great king from history.
Spades - King David
Clubs - Alexander the Great,
Hearts - Charlemagne
Diamonds - Julius Caesar.
15. 111,111,111 x 111,111,111 = 12,345,678,987,654,321
16. If a statue of a person in the park on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle.

If the horse has one front leg in the air,the person died as a result of wounds received in battle.

If the horse has a all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural causes.
17. What do bullet proof vests, fire escapes, windshield wipers and laser printers all have in common?
Ans. - All invented by women.
18. Question - This is the only food that doesn't spoil. What is this?
Ans. - Honey

Things Not Known To Us --- 2

Posted by rajascientist 0 comments

There are some things  we   do not kn O I right??

19. A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out.
20. A snail can sleep for three years.
21. All polar bears are left handed.
22. American Airlines saved $40,000 in 1987 by eliminating one olive from each salad served in first-class.
23. Butterflies taste with their feet.
24. Elephants are the only animals that can't jump.
25. In the last 4000 years, no new animals have been domesticated.
26. On average, people fear spiders more than they do death.
27. Shakespeare invented the word 'assassination' and 'bump'.
28. Stewardesses is the longest word typed with only the left hand.
29. The ant always falls over on its right side when intoxicated.
30. The electric chair was invented by a dentist.
31. The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.
32. Rats multiply so quickly that in 18 months, two rats could have over million descendants.
33. Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times.
34. The cigarette lighter was invented before the match.
35. Most lipstick contains fish scales.
36. Like fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different


                 On Friday, 2010 January 15, an annular eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a 300-km-wide track that traverses half of Earth. The path of the Moon's antumbral shadow begins in Africa and passes through Chad, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, and Somalia. After leaving Africa, the path crosses the Indian Ocean where the maximum duration of annularity reaches 11 min 08s.

                    The central path then continues into Asia through Bangladesh, India, Burma (Myanmar), and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Europe, most of Africa, Asia, and Indonesia.

for more info:

               NASA has launched a rare campaign to dispel widespread rumours fuelled by a new Hollywood movie that the world is coming to an end in 2012.

             The latest big screen offering from Sony Picture, "2012," arrives in theaters on Friday, with a 200-million-dollar production about the end of the world supposedly based on myths backed by the Mayan calendar.
               The doomsday scenario revolves around claims that the end of time will come as an obscure Planet X -- or Nibiru -- heads toward or collides with Earth.
The mysterious planet was supposedly discovered by the Sumerians, according to claims by pseudo-scientists, paranormal activity enthusiasts and Internet theorists.
Some websites accuse NASA of concealing the truth on the wayward planet's existence, but the US space agency denounced such stories as an "Internet hoax."
"There is no factual basis for these claims," NASA said in a question-and-answer posting on its website.
If such a collision were real "astronomers would have been tracking it for at least the past decade, and it would be visible by now to the naked eye," it added. "Obviously, it does not exist."
"Credible scientists worldwide know of no threat associated with 2012," it insisted.
After all, "our planet has been getting along just fine for more than four billion years," added NASA.
There is another planet, Eris, floating in space. But the dwarf planet similar to Pluto will remain safely lodged in the outer solar system and it can come no closer than four billion miles (6.4 billion kilometers) to Earth, according to NASA.
Scores of Internet postings and books delve into the supposed disaster, including "Apocalypse 2012" and "How to Survive 2012."
Initial theories set the disaster for May 2003, but when nothing happened the date was moved forward to the winter solstice in 2012 to coincide with the end of a cycle of the ancient Mayan calendar.
NASA insisted the Mayan calendar in fact does not end on December 21, 2012, as another period begins immediately afterward. And it said there are no planetary alignments on the horizon for the next few decades.
And even if the planets were to line up as some have forecast, the effect on our planet would be "negligible," NASA said.
Among the other theories NASA has set out to debunk are that geomagnetic storms, a pole reversal or unsteadiness in the Earth's crustal plates might befall the planet.
For example, some myths claim the Earth's rotation and magnetic polarity are related, with a magnetic reversal taking place about every 400,000 years.
"As far as we know, such a magnetic reversal doesn't cause any harm to life on Earth," and a reversal in Earth's rotation is "impossible," NASA reassured, adding that a magnetic reversal is "very unlikely" to occur in the next few millenia.
And while comets and asteroids have always hit the Earth, "big hits are very rare," NASA noted. The last major impact was believed to be 65 million years ago, spurring the end of dinosaurs.
"We have already determined that there are no threatening asteroids as large as the one that killed the dinosaurs," the space agency said.


     After Chandrayaan-1's discovery of water molecules on the Moon comes another astronomy breakthrough for India. An international grouplead by Sudip Bhattacharyya, a 36-year-old space scientist at Mumbai's Tata Institute of Fundamental research, has discovered a way to measure the size of neutron stars.

                        Before we go any further, what is a neutron star? Speaking to TOI on Monday, Bhattacharyya explained: "To put it simply, it is the final stage of a very massive star. When the massive star burns up its fuel, it collapses to become a neutron star," he said, adding that there are between 100 million and 1,000 million neutron stars in the galaxy.

  On average, a neutron star is very small — approximately 10km in diameter — and 10,000 light years from Earth, thus making it extremely difficult to study and measure. Bhattacharyya and his team's research revealed the unsuspected property of X-ray bursts given off by the stars, which led to the discovery that the pattern of X-rays generated might reveal their true size.

                    "Since these X-rays cannot reach the Earth because of a blanket created by the atmosphere, data was collected of more than 900 bursts from 43 neutron stars through a Nasa satellite and transmitted to us," Bhattacharyya said.

                     The scientist and his colleagues — Coleman Miller of the University of Maryland and Galloway Monash of the University of Australia — modelled how the temperature of the bursts changed as they faded and found it varied in relation to the radius of the star. The team's research has been accepted for publication in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Space based Solar Power

Posted by rajascientist 0 comments

Space-based solar power (SBSP) (or historically space solar power (SSP)) is a system for the collection of solar power in space, for use on Earth. SBSP differs from the usual method of solar power collection in that the solar panels used to collect the energy would reside on a satellite in orbit, often referred to as a solar power satellite (SPS), rather than on Earth's surface. In space, collection of the Sun's energy is unaffected by the day/night cycle, weather, seasons, or the filtering effect of Earth's atmospheric gases.

Average solar power per unit area outside Earth's atmosphere during any given time period is about 136%[citation needed] that available on Earth's surface during direct sunlight (1336 W/m2). A major interest in SBSP stems from the length of time the solar collection panels can be exposed to a consistently high amount of solar radiation. For most of the year, a satellite-based solar panel can collect power 24 hours per day, whereas a land-based station can collect for only 12 hours per day, yielding lower power collection rates around the sunrise and sunset hours.

The collection of solar energy in space for use on Earth introduces the new problem of transmitting energy from the collection point, in space, to the place where the energy would be used, on Earth's surface. Since wires extending from Earth's surface to an orbiting satellite would be impractical, many SBSP designs have proposed the use of microwave beams for wireless power transmission. The collecting satellite would convert solar energy into electrical energy, which would then be used to power a microwave emitter directed at a collector on the Earth's surface. Dynamic solar thermal power systems are also being investigated.


Posted by rajascientist 0 comments

 Jupiter's Temporary Moon For 12 Years:

Jupiter snared a passing comet in the middle of the last century, eventually releasing it 12 years later, astronomers reported on Monday.

Data presented at the European Planetary Science Congress in Potsdam, near Berlin, showed that the biggest planet of the Solar System gained a temporary satellite, a comet called 147P/Kushida-Muramatsu, between 1949 and 1961.

It is only the fifth captured comet to be identified, a press release said.

Comets are lonely wanderers of the Solar System, sometimes taking decades or even centuries to complete a long orbit around the Sun.

On rare occasions, though, these enigmatic bodies of ice and dust can wander into the vicinity of a planet, where they are netted by its gravitational pull.

Sometimes, the comet breaks up and smashes into the planet, as was famously the case with Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, whose fragments smashed into Jupiter in 1994.

Most of the observed temporary captures have been flybys, in which a comet does not complete a full orbit before wresting itself free.

Kushida-Muramatsu, though, completed two full revolutions of Jupiter, following an irregular orbit, before it gained its freedom, according to calculations led Katsuhito Ohtsuka of the Tokyo Meteor Network.

"The results of our study suggests that impacts on Jupiter and temporary satellite capture events may happen more frequently than we previously expected," said David Asher of Northern Ireland's Armagh Observatory, who presented the data in Potsdam.

The study has a bearing for understanding the risk of a cometary impact on Earth, an event that would wreak catastrophic damage. A colliding asteroid or comet is believed to have ended the long reign of the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago.

Jupiter is often seen as a "goalkeeper" that takes hits from comets that could possibly endanger Earth.
But it can deflect passing comets, too, altering their track around the Sun.

Thus understanding how this process works will help astronomers trying to evaluate the risk to Earth from rogue rocks.
Comet Kushida-Muramatsu appears to have avoided the fate of Shoemaker-Levy 9 "for the foreseeable future," said Levy.

South Korea's First Satellite Missing After Launch:

SEOUL -- A satellite launched by South Korea's first space rocket is thought to have burnt up in the Earth's atmosphere after missing its designated orbit, officials said Wednesday.

Seoul vowed to press on with its drive to become a space technology leader despite Tuesday's setback, caused by the defective operation of a fairing covering the satellite.

The science and technology ministry said one of the two aerodynamic fairings covering the rocket's tip failed to fall away, after opening in preparation for the satellite's release.
Because of the fairing's weight the second stage of the rocket could not achieve enough thrust to place the satellite in orbit. Its speed fell to 6.2 kilometres per second instead of an optimum eight kilometres per second.

Deputy science minister Kim Jung-Hyun said the extra weight also caused the rocket to steer upwards and the satellite to be released at a higher altitude than planned.
The satellite reached an altitude of 387 kilometres (242 miles).
"After reaching this height, it fell to Earth and was probably destroyed as it re-entered the atmosphere," Kim said.
South Korea had invested more than 500 billion won (400 million dollars) and much national pride in the satellite and the 33-metre (108-foot) rocket.
The first stage was built in collaboration with Russia's Khrunichev space centre. The second stage, including the defective fairings, was constructed by local engineers who also built the 100-kilogram (220-pound) research satellite.
"South Korea was in charge of the separation of fairings while Russia was in charge of overall technical assistance. Therefore the two countries share the responsibility," Kim told reporters.
"Further discussions (with Russia) will be held on this point."
The launch had been delayed seven times since 2005, most notably last week when the countdown was stopped eight minutes before blastoff.
"We can say it was half successful, though the satellite failed to enter orbit," President Lee Myung-Bak told a cabinet meeting Tuesday evening, Lee was quoted by his spokesman as saying.
"We must realise our dream of becoming a leading country in space technology, even if it takes an eighth attempt after seven failures or a ninth attempt after eight failures."
Korea Aerospace Research Institute expert Chae Yeon-Seok was more upbeat.
"Despite the glitch, this was a success as all main systems including the two brand-new first and second-stage rockets operated normally," Chae told AFP.
North Korea, smarting at the UN Security Council's censure of its own April 5 rocket launch, had vowed to closely monitor reaction to its neighbour's launch from Goheung on the south coast.
Washington and its allies said the launch by the nuclear-armed North was a disguised test of a long-range missile. South Korea limits its own missiles to a 300 kilometre range under an accord with its ally the United States.
US State Department spokesman Ian Kelly said Tuesday the South's space programme had been developed "in a responsible manner".
The nation has previously sent 10 satellites into space using launch vehicles from other countries.
In November 2007 it announced an ambitious plan to launch a lunar orbiter by 2020 and to send a probe to the Moon five years after that.
South Korea unveiled the lunar project one month after China launched its first lunar orbiter and two months after Japan did the same.
In April last year Seoul sent its first astronaut into space aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket.

Global Warming Vs Earth's Tilt

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Warming oceans could cause Earth's axis to tilt in the coming century, a new study suggests. The effect was previously thought to be negligible, but researchers now say the shift will be large enough that it should be taken into account when interpreting how the Earth wobbles.
The Earth spins on an axis that is tilted some 23.5° from the vertical. But this position is far from constant – the planet's axis is constantly shifting in response to changes in the distribution of mass around the Earth. "The Earth is like a spinning top, and if you put more mass on one side or other, the axis of rotation is going to shift slightly," says Felix Landerer of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

The changing climate has long been known to move Earth's axis. The planet's north pole, for example, is migrating along 79 °W – a line of longitude that runs through Toronto and Panama City – at a rate of about 10 centimetres each year as the Earth rebounds from ice sheets that once weighed down large swaths of North America, Europe, and Asia.
The influx of fresh water from shrinking ice sheets also causes the planet to pitch over. Landerer and colleagues estimate that the melting of Greenland's ice is already causing Earth's axis to tilt at an annual rate of about 2.6 centimetres – and that rate may increase significantly in the coming years.
Now, they calculate that oceans warmed by the rise in greenhouse gases can also cause the Earth to tilt – a conclusion that runs counter to older models, which suggested that ocean expansion would not create a large shift in the distribution of the Earth's mass.


Posted by rajascientist Sunday, December 13, 2009 0 comments


                 I am back to share some tips and experience of mine with  you all. I came across a FM STEREO CASSETTE PLAYER  , the complaint was over heating  and no response. Power supply was good .

                 It was a bit old model it has both FM and cassette player , i opened the case and closely examined . Soon  I felt the heat all over the case.I touched each and every part and when I just touched the heat sink of amplifier IC  my God it almost burnt my finger .

                It was extremely hot , switching off the power supply i checked the pcb for any fault immediately i found direct short circuit  between positive and negative .I checked for diode ,resistors and finally transistors all are working fine  but still my multimeter shows 0 ohms between + and -.

               The only part left was amp IC  CD6283CS , at last i found it , it was the faulty IC which created the problem it was shorted . I removed the IC and checked it yes it was gone.I replaced it with new one now the set works fine .


Posted by rajascientist Friday, December 11, 2009 0 comments

                         Electronic mosquito repellents — buzzing devices marketed to prevent malaria — don’t prevent bites and therefore don’t prevent disease transmission, according to a new review of studies.

                           “EMRs should not be manufactured, advertised or used for mosquito bite and malaria prevention, as they do not do so,” said lead author A. Ali Enayati, Ph.D., lecturer in medical entomology at the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari, Iran.

                             The review appears in the latest issue of The Cochrane Library, a publication of The Cochrane Collaboration, an international organization that evaluates medical research. Systematic reviews draw evidence-based conclusions about medical practice after considering both the content and quality of existing medical trials on a topic.

                              The researcher analyzed 10 studies conducted in North America, Russia and Africa. All were field-based studies — occurring in a natural setting rather than a laboratory.
All studies “found that there was no difference in the number of mosquitoes that landed on the bare body parts of the human subjects with or without an EMR,” Enayati said. “Hence, these devices do not work in repelling mosquitoes. As EMRs do not repel mosquitoes, they would not prevent malaria.”

                               Malaria, which kills more than a million persons every year, is most deadly among children and is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. It is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes infected with the malaria parasite. No vaccine against malaria is available.

For more info              


Posted by rajascientist Thursday, October 15, 2009 0 comments

                       When it comes to the design of fans there hasn’t been much innovation or change for a long time. An electric motor turns some blades which then produces a flow of air. The design is simple, yet effective, and we use such fans in everything from keeping our PC components cool to keeping ourselves cool on a hot summer day.

                     Dyson, most well known for revolutionizing the vacuum cleaner market with its bagless design, has now started another revolution with fans. Its researchers have managed to create a fan that has no blades yet still manages to produce a strong stream of air flow.    

                     The Airblade hand-dryer, launched three years ago, was initially compared to a noisy trouser press. Now it is common in office, school and NHS toilets, drying hands in as little as 10 seconds and reducing infection by cutting cross-contamination from bacteria.

                    Stung by criticism of relying on overseas manufacturing facilities in Malaysia and China, Dyson said the new products would be assembled in the UK and exported from the UK. "We are a British company but we weren't allowed to expand in the UK," he said.

For more Information

Picture Shrinks In Samsung Colour Tv

Posted by rajascientist Friday, September 25, 2009 0 comments

                       Few  days back  while watching Tv  suddenly  I noticed a change in  the picture size. I changed the channel and it remained the same .The problem is horizontal picture size of my Tv , it has shrinked. The vertical size is  fine.

                   Instead of flat ,straight picture ,it turned to be curved one.  It happened frequently  and  I already had a guess about the culprit.

                   I removed the Back cover of my  Tv  and removed the Main IC  VCT  4964F PZF100  carefully by desoldering .

                  Now  I replaced it with new  one , and checked for any other fault. Now I switched on the Tv It works fine .

My Own Idea To Try

Posted by rajascientist Tuesday, September 22, 2009 0 comments

Free Road Side Lighting :
             Have  you ever noticed  a lot of wind energy is produced and wasted , as a vehicle pass by you along the high way. These  wind energy produced throughout the day can be used effectively to generate power. These power can be used for lighting road side lights.

          Placing small wind turbine along  the road will generate power, enough  wind will be produced by vehicle passing by. These turbines can be placed along the road side or at the platform separating two lanes. Thousand of vehicle pass by every day and plenty of artificial wind is produced.

 Wind Turbine For Vehicle:    

               Another idea is placing a small turbine above or at the front of the vehicle . As the vehicle moves these turbines can be used to generate  power ,enough to charge a battery .Once fully charged this can be used to run the car. Alternate  battery can be charged at the same time.Hence a complete electric car  ,without any wastage of time in charging the battery can be obtained.


              For additional power the body of car  can be coated with solar cell.


Posted by rajascientist Tuesday, September 1, 2009 3 comments

You might have all came across many electric bells using electromagnet ,this is yet another one with slight modification , a home made electric bell.

Materials Required:

  1. Gong ( toy car )
  2. Hammer (battery cover sheet)
  3. Electromagnet ( Picture tube coil)
  4. 9 V battery
  5. Simple Switch Mechanism.(hanging wire)
  6. Pole Supporting Hammer ( pen refill)


When electric current passes through a coil wound on a soft iron core ,iron acts as a temporary magnet. It acts as a magnet until current passes through it. I got this electromagnet from junk TV picture tube, works perfectly.

More the number of turns ,more the applied voltage the strength of electromagnet will increase.

Gong :

Look for it in some toy cars ,or else take some tensile metal .


Do it yourself. I made one out of a battery cover metal sheet.

Simple Switch Mechanism:

It is the switch mechanism which varies from bell to bell. It depends upon creativity of creator. Many types mechanism are available. I have used hanging type switch. Nothing but a simple strip of wire hanging down touching the hammer.

Whenever the hammer is pulled and released , the circuit opens and closes.


A small pole is erected near the electromagnet , bearing spring and holding hammer. I used a pen refill as a pole and a spring around the refill. Which gives the necessary tension to the hammer.

This is how it works . The speed of the hammer can be increased by increasing the power of electromagnet .

India's No.1 Electronics Trade Fair Organiser

Posted by rajascientist Thursday, August 27, 2009 1 comments

The Hub of the Indian Electronics Industry - Meet over 800 Exhibitors from World over

Electronica India 2009

Productronica India 2009

8,9,10,11, September 2009 ,Bangalore International Exhibition Centre (BIEC), Bangalore India.

Country Pavilions: Germany,China,USA,UK more than 25 countries.

Free Entry To Exhibition

For more information


Electricity From Water

Posted by rajascientist Sunday, August 23, 2009 0 comments

Simple Battery

Following the below procedure you can make a simple battery ,by just using water as a electrolyte.

Things needed:

  1. Water
  2. Zinc plate
  3. Carbon rod
  4. Waste battery

This simple battery needs two electrodes Zinc and Carbon .These electrodes can be easily obtained from junk batteries.

How to remove carbon rod:

First of all remove the external metal covering of the battery carefully.Now the layer covering the battery is nothing but Zinc .

After removing the plastic cover ,carefully remove the carbon rod by pulling at the top. You can get a black rod that is nothing but the carbon rod.

Leave all those black powder which is of no use for us .Now the zinc plate and carbon rod are going to act as a electrode.


Take a glass full of water immerse these two electrodes, now check the voltage using multimeter.By connecting two or more such cells you can produce voltage enough to light a LED.

For more voltage add some acid to water ,so that the conductivity of water increases.You can add lemon ,citrus juice to water which are acidic in nature .

Getting Laser Diode:

How to remove laser diode from a junk Dvd player , this is the most common question.Finally the answer in revealed below.

Below is the picture of laser lens set acquired from a junk Dvd player.

At the center is lens ,surrounded by focus adjustment coils.But our point of focus is laser diode. For your convenience i have removed the laser diode separately.

Once you have located the laser diode you can remove it by cutting the strip.Now you have got a four pin laser diode.

Polarity of diode:

Our next task is to find the polarity of the laser diode. With simple technique it can be done easily. Place the diode on the ground such that the pins face the sky , now look at the bottom of the pin , you can see a black stud in all the three pins except one which is the ground pin .

Now look out for the positive pin ,the pin right to the ground pin is usually the positive ,in some case the pin left to the ground acts as positive.

Laser beam:

To check the diode use two batteries ,so that a steady 3v can be obtained. Most of the laser diode operate at 3v ,any thing above 3V may spoil the diode,be careful.

The moment you connect your battery ,you can see a beam of red laser gushing out. This beam can be focused in to a single point by using collimating lens .

For more powerful laser look for CD or DVD writer , laser diode.

Don't look at the diode directly ,you may end up damaging your eye.


Posted by rajascientist Monday, August 17, 2009 0 comments

Recently I came across a washing machine ,the problem was it was not draining the water after spinning. It was an Whirlpool automatic washing machine. I opened the back cover gained access to the drain hose .

Actually draining of water will be actuated by pulling the piston out.It is done by a motor gear assembly ,which pulls the string connected to the drain hose. I pulled the string manually water gushed out immediately. So the problem might be with that drain motor or with the swith which actuates this motor.

After removing the machine completely I found that the small motor gear set has been rusted by water.Some how water has entered and it spoiled everything. I took that motor set and opened its cover.

Inside it was a permanent magnet AC motor ,which runs on 220V 50Hz supply. I carefully removed all the gears and gained access to the motor. I removed that motor and connected it to 220V ,but the motor struggled to spin.

So i found out the problem , It was this faulty motor. Actually rust has developed around the stator which prevented free rotation of the motor. I cleaned and removed the rust, now again the motor spins perfectly.

I carefully assembled the gears back to its position and screwed it to the machine. Now it works perfectly. If still the problem exists , better replace the drain motor.


Posted by rajascientist Sunday, August 16, 2009 0 comments

It is said that Jupiter and Neptune comes in a straight line with Earth.So that Jupiter can be viewed directly by naked eye, by around 7:30 pm on 17th August 2009 .

Since Neptune is some what farther from Earth , it can be viewed by telescope or binocular etc .,


Posted by rajascientist Saturday, August 15, 2009 0 comments

What is the best way to keep from spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing?

If you are sick limit your contact with other people as much as possible.Do not go to work stay at home or in your hotel room.Cover your mouth and nose with a mask when coughing or sneezing.It may prevent those around you from getting sick.Put your used tissue in the waste basket.If you do not have a mask cover your cough or sneeze whenever you cough or sneeze.Then clean your hands every time you cough or sneeze.

For what purposes can antiviral drugs be used against influenza A(H1N1)?

So far most people who have contracted the new A (H1N1) virus have experienced influenza-like symptoms (such as sore throat, cough, runny nose, fever, malaise, headache, joint/muscle pain) and recovered without antiviral treatment. Antiviral drugs may reduce the symptoms and duration of illness, just as they do for seasonal influenza. They also may contribute to preventing severe disease and death. Influenza A (H1N1) is a new virus and only a small number of people with the infection have been treated for it with antiviral drugs. WHO is in touch with public health authorities and clinicians in affected countries and is gathering information about how effective the drugs are.

Is there a human vaccine to protect from Swine Influenza ?

There are no vaccines that contain the current swine influenza virus causing illness in humans.It is not known whether current human seasonal influenza vaccines can provide any protection.Influenza virus changes very quickly.This is why WHO needs access to as many viruses as possible in order to select the most appropriate candidate vaccine virus.

To which antiviral drugs does this influenza virus respond?

There are two classes of antiviral drugs for influenza: inhibitors of neuraminidase such as oseltamivir and zanamivir; and adamantanes, such as amantadine and rimantadine. Tests on viruses obtained from patients in Mexico and the United States have indicated that current new H1N1 viruses are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors, but that the viruses are resistant to the other class, the adamantanes. Could the virus become resistant to oseltamivir and zanamivir? Resistance can develop to antiviral drugs used for influenza. Therefore, WHO and its partners are monitoring antiviral drug resistance.

Under what circumstances should antiviral drugs be administered?

Antiviral drugs are to be used according to national pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Public health authorities in some countries have decided to treat patients likely to have this disease as a part of public health measures. Where antiviral drugs are available for treatment, clinicians should make decisions based on assessment of the individual patient's risk. Risks versus benefits should also be evaluated on a case by case basis.

Should I take an antiviral now just in case I catch the new virus?

No. You should only take an antiviral, such as oseltamivir or zanamivir, if your health care provider advises you to do so. Individuals should not buy medicines to prevent or fight this new influenza without a prescription, and they should exercise caution in buying antivirals over the internet.

What is WHO doing about getting antiviral drugs to countries as preparation for a pandemic?

WHO’s first priority is to provide an emergency stock of antiviral drugs to countries that have no or insufficient stock of the drugs and lack the capacity to procure these drugs themselves. WHO is also working with Member States, donors and other groups that have stockpiles and are willing to share these with WHO for distribution to countries in need.

Which drug will be provided, and how much of it does WHO have available?

WHO had a global stockpile of approximately 5 million adult treatment courses of oseltamivir. Part of this stockpile has already been distributed through the WHO Regional Offices, which are handling allocation and distribution. WHO is currently distributing the remaining 3 million adult treatment courses of this stockpile to developing countries in need. WHO continues to assess needs and to work with manufacturers to secure more donations of antivirals. More antiviral drugs will be distributed once these donations are received.


Posted by rajascientist Thursday, August 13, 2009 1 comments


Swine Influenza ( swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses (H1N1 subtype) that causes regular outbreaks in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu ,but human infections can and do happen.

Swine flu viruses have been reported to spread from person to person, but in the past ,this transmission was limited and not sustained beyond three people.


The symptoms of swine flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include

  1. Fever
  2. Sore throat
  3. Cough
  4. Body ache
  5. Head ache
  6. Fatigue
  7. Chills
Some people have reported diarrhea ad vomiting associated with swine flu.

In the past several illness ( pneumonia and respiratory failure)and death have been reported with swine flu infection in people.

Like seasonal flu swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.


Spread of this swine influenza A (H1N1) virus is thought to be happening in the same way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses mainly spread from person to person through coughing or sneezing of people with influenza. Some times people may get infected by touching something
with flu virus on it and then touching their mouth or nose.


In children emergency warning signs that needs urgent medical attentions include:

  • Fast breathing or trouble in breathing
  • Bluish skin color
  • Not drinking enough fluids
  • Not waking up or not interacting
  • Being so irritable that child does not want to be held
  • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
  • Fever with a rash

In adults emergency warning signs that needs urgent medical attentions include:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Severe or persistent vomiting


Posted by rajascientist Wednesday, August 12, 2009 26 comments

Many junk electronics gadgets can be used to get some useful spare parts and some times amplifier circuit,transmitter,receiver etc.,

I got a junk CD player a few weeks back i opened it and took some useful things some motors,laser diode, IR receiver, and finally a Dual channel Audio amplifier.

The IC was CD6283CS and its specifications are as follows

4.6 W x 2 dual-channel audio power amplifier

Model: CD6283CS

Product Name: Dual-channel audio power amplifier
Overview and Application: CD6283CS is one pair of channel audio power amplifier can be used in portable and hand-made audio power amplification

1). Large output power

2). Boot "sound of escaping laughter" small voice
3). Quiescent current small

4). Soft clamp function

5). Built-in overheating protection circuit
6). Wide range of supply voltage: VCC = 6V to 15V Package: FSIP12

I took that amplifier circuit and assembled it in another small case ( i used a junk fish tank motor).

I just drilled four holes to accompany two volume control , one Bass and One Treble. Now i fitted the main amplifier board and took out all the connecting wires.

Now I got a handy audio amplifier which i can use it for my hobby projects.


Posted by rajascientist 0 comments

The Perseids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Swift-Tuttle. The Perseids are so called because the point they appear to come from, called the radiant, lies in the constellation Perseus.

Meteor showers occur when Earth moves through a meteor stream. The stream in this case is called the Perseid cloud and it stretches along the orbit of the Comet Swift-Tuttle. The cloud consists of particles ejected by the comet as it passed by the Sun.

Most of the dust in the cloud today is approximately a thousand years old. However, there is also a relatively young filament of dust in the stream that was pulled off the comet in 1862.

The rate of meteors originating from this filament is much higher than for the older part of the stream. The Perseid meteor shower has been observed for about 2000 years, with the first known information on this meteor shower coming from the Far East. In early medieval Europe, the Perseids came to be known as the "tears of St. Lawrence."

The shower is visible from mid-July each year, with the greatest activity between August 8 and 14, peaking about August 12. During the peak, the rate of meteors reaches 60 or more per hour.

They can be seen all across the sky, but because of the path of Swift-Tuttle's orbit, Perseids are primarily visible in the northern hemisphere.

Perseids active between
Peak of shower
14 July - ...[1]
Expected: 11 August - 12 August [2]
25 July - 24 August [3]
13 August (ZHRmax 116) [3]
19 July - 25 August [4]
13 August (ZHRmax 93) [5]

12 August: reported to be the most active shower in recorded history


Posted by rajascientist Sunday, August 9, 2009 1 comments

This was the message I got few months ago whenever I started my PC , sometimes suddenly my PC will go off and When I restart again the same message appeared.

I thought I would have over used my Computer but thats not the problem I know, because system can be used continuously throughout the day .

I removed the cooling fan and heat sink placed directly above the processor and cleaned it.

Fan was working good, heat sink was cleaned and now its free from dust. I cleaned the heat sink with cycle pump. Now assembled everything back in to its position . Again I got the same message .

This time I removed CPU fan , heat sink also the processor beneath.

It was difficult to remove the processor, the heat sink compound was dried and it was difficult to remove the processor.

Heat sink compound is a white paste like substance applied over the processor and at the bottom of the heat sink. It is mainly used for cooling and can be obtained at local shop.

I bought a new compound and applied it . But when started my PC it ran good for a while again it stopped, showing the same message.

Now I removed all the wire connections from SMPS and checked the wires . Finally I found the culprit.

It was a four pin from the SMPS yellow, black wire i.e, 12v wire. The wire end was blackened.I opened the SMPS and rectified the fault now My system is working fine.


Posted by rajascientist Saturday, August 8, 2009 0 comments

Troubleshooting Whirlpool Auto sparkle Washing Machine :

The problem with the washing machine was over flowing of water . It has a water level controller with options namely Extra low, low, Medium , High and reset.

High water level is selected for washing more clothes , that is when the tub is full .
But the problem is whenever the water level is selected to High , the starts filling even after the level is reached and it over flows.

This is mainly due to the faulty water level controller shown above or the tube which connects the controller and the water tub. The water inside the tub creates a pressure depending upon the level of water present in the tub .This pressure controls the water level controller .

I resolved this problem by loosening the screw in the water level controller , thereby making it easy to stop water over flowing. The more you loose the screw less the water pressure is required to stop water intake.


Posted by rajascientist Friday, August 7, 2009 0 comments

In my previous post I shared my experience about my UPS now I have two more devices to share with you all. One thing is Electronic Choke and the other Emergency lamp.

Electronic Fluorescent lamp choke:

I got a tube light with no response ,from one of my customer .His doubt was lightning. I opened the electronic choke and his doubt was right it was affected by lightning. I just had a look at the PCB, line to a small transformer inside was burnt .

I just gave a parallel connection to it using a small bit of wire. I checked each and every component inside and everything works fine. After connecting the choke I switched on and the tube light glows.

Emergency lamp:

Another case was with an emergency lamp which is plugged in while charging and was affected by lightning .

The green light was not glowing that is battery is not charging but it can discharge . The lamp glows with the residue charge present in the battery.

After opening the lamp having a look at the PCB found a hole in the PCB , might have got a severe volt. Fortunately everything was fine I checked each and every component . Now as usual I traced the line and gave a parallel line to the small transformer whose circuit was burnt.

Now i plugged in and switched on the lamp ,the green light glows and the battery is charging . Every thing works fine.


Posted by rajascientist 0 comments

Like many other guys me too very much interested towards electronics and I like troubleshooting them. Here I am going to share some of my experience regarding electronic gadgets affected by lightning .

Normally a device gets affected by lightning when its power chord is just plugged in , doesn't matter its switched on or not, just a plugged chord is enough to get affected by lightning.

First thing I am going to share is about my UPS


One night I left my UPS plugged in , but power is switched off . I went to sleep , around midnight I heard a loud bang like how a glass piece dropped down will make shattering sound. I woke up and ran towards my PC and TV thought one of my picture tube would have burst. Luckily both was safe , I happily went to sleep without knowing the whats waiting for me the next day , next morning when I switched on my PC, UPS has no response and at that time I recalled what happened last night.

Opened my UPS, removed PCB board , what I saw was along the border of PCB the ground line was burnt and lost two diodes, which I found later after testing with Multimeter.

I just tracked down the line of PCB and just soldered a piece of wire instead of that line and replaced those diodes. Now it works fine .

I have seen some more devices affected by lightning .In my experience ,when compared to other faults lightning causes PCB burning normally it doesn't spoils any components.


Posted by rajascientist Tuesday, August 4, 2009 0 comments

Give free food with one click. Visit

Hunger remains the No.1 cause of death in the world. Aids, Cancer etc. follow.

There are 820 million chronically hungry people in the world.

1/3rd of the world’s hungry live in India.

836 million Indians survive on less than Rs. 20 (less than half-a-dollar) a day.

Over 20 crore Indians will sleep hungry tonight.

10 million people die every year of chronic hunger and hunger-related diseases. Only eight percent are the victims of hunger caused by high-profile earthquakes, floods, droughts and wars.

India has 212 million undernourished people – only marginally below the 215 million estimated for 1990–92.

99% of the 1000 Adivasi households from 40 villages in the two states, who comprised the total sample, experienced chronic hunger (unable to get two square meals, or at least one square meal and one poor/partial meal, on even one day in the week prior to the survey). Almost as many (24.1 per cent) had lived in conditions of semi-starvation during the previous month.

Over 7000 Indians die of hunger every day.

Over 25 lakh Indians die of hunger every year.

Despite substantial improvement in health since independence and a growth rate of 8 percent in recent years, under-nutrition remains a silent emergency in India, with almost 50 percent of Indian children underweight and more than 70 percent of the women and children with serious nutritional deficiencies as anemia.

The 1998 – 99 Indian survey shows 57 percent of the children aged 0 – 3 years to be either severely or moderately stunted and/or underweight.

During 2006 – 2007, malnutrition contributed to seven million Indian children dying, nearly two million before the age of one.

30% of newborn are of low birth weight, 56% of married women are anaemic and 79% of children age 6-35 months are anaemic.

The number of hungry people in India is always more than the number of people below official poverty line (while around 37% of rural households were below the poverty line in 1993-94, 80% of households suffered under nutrition).

Sources :

UN World Food Programme
UN World Health Organization: Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, 2006
UN Food and Agriculture Organization: SOFI 2006 Report
National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (India)
National Family Health Survey 2005 – 06 (NFHS-3) (India)
Centre for Environment and Food Security (India)
Rural 21 (India)

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